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The characteristics of whitening materials and their application in the face serum
May 09, 2018

(1) Arbutin:

Also known as arbutin, it is a white needle-like crystal or powder that is easily soluble in water. Because of its earliest origins from natural green plants, it is a skin whitening active substance integrating the concepts of “green”, “safety” and “high-efficiency”. At present, the most attention should be a arbutin, the effect is 5-6 times of B arbutin, cost-effective.


(2) Ascorbic Acid (VC) Ethyl Ether:

Also known as Vitamin C Ethyl Ether, it is by far the best derivative of Vc. It is a white crystalline powder, non-toxic, non-irritating and soluble in water. Low molecular weight (204) and effective skin conduction, easy to penetrate the stratum corneum into the dermis, and more effective to achieve anti-oxidation, anti-free radicals, whitening, freckle, anti-aging and other effects. Applicable to all types of cosmetics, it is recommended to add 0.5% -2%.


(3) Ascorbic acid phosphate ester salt:

Another derivative of Vc are magnesium ascorbyl phosphate (MAP), sodium ascorbyl phosphate (SAP), calcium ascorbyl phosphate, and the like, which have a similar structure, that is, a phosphate molecule is attached to an ascorbic acid-reactive hydroxyl group. It is a white powder or crystal, soluble in water, suitable for a variety of cosmetics (creams, lotions), added at low temperature, the recommended amount is 0.5%-3%.


(4) Ascorbic acid ethyl ether dipalmitate:

A new generation of oil-soluble derivatives.


(5) Ascorbyl palmitate:

White crystalline powder, poor water solubility, soluble in ethanol. It is unstable under heating, light, etc., and it is prone to discoloration and failure. The whitening effect is also less than other whitening agents, but it is still due to Vc. Can be used in creams, lotions and cosmetics, it is recommended to add 1%-4%.


(6) Ascorbyl Glucoside (AA2G):

It is an excellent VC derivative and it is a drug that can inhibit the efficacy of melanin. It shows excellent stability in heat, light and metal ions, and is as good as ascorbic acid ethyl ether. There are many brands that have used this product to add whitening products. The recommended amount is 0.5%-3%.


(7) tranexamic acid:


Chemical name is tranexamic acid or tranexamic acid, crystalline, water-soluble, whitening effect is very significant, the effectiveness of its black spots removed 50 times higher than VC, is 10 times that of acid.


(8) 4MSK:


4MSK (4-Methoxy Salicylic Acid KCI): 4-methoxysalicylate potassium salt. It is a medicinal whitening ingredient that has the effect of inhibiting the production of melanin and preventing the formation of spots and freckles caused by the sun. 4MSK not only has the effect of inhibiting the formation of melanin, but also can adjust the condition of the keratinization process.


(9) Resorcinol derivatives:


Some of these ingredients, under no more than a high dose, cause skin irritation to be acceptable. Therefore, a relatively good product development plan is used in combination with traditional whitening ingredients. Reduces irritation while improving whitening effectiveness. The raw material body has good stability and safety and is also an excellent antioxidant. The recommended dosage is 0.1%-1%. (Note: The ideal pH is between 4-5). Among them, hexyl resorcinol, butyl resorcinol, dimethoxytolyl-4-propyl resorcinol and phenethyl resorcinol have good applications.

Phenylethanol Resorcinol: A white crystalline solid with a light odor. Not directly soluble in water, soluble in glycols, GTCC and hexadecanoic acid esters. Excellent whitening. The freckle effect, one of the most active tyrosinase inhibitors reported, is 22 times that of kojic acid, effectively inhibiting b16v cell synthesis of melanin activity, which is 210 times that of kojic acid and 32 times that of arbutin.

Hexyl resorcinol: It also inhibits the activity of tyrosinase and blocks melanin production. In addition, this ingredient also protects against UVA, UVB damage, and anti-wrinkle properties. In vivo experiments confirmed that 0.5% of hexylresorcinol had the same whitening effect as 2% hydroquinone within 8 weeks.

Butyl resorcinol: Similar to hexyl resorcinol, it has lower irritation than phenylethyl resorcinol. It also inhibits the activity of tyrosinase and has a good whitening function.


(10) L-Glutathione:


Also called reduced glutathione, white crystalline powder, soluble in water. It is a tripeptide consisting of glutamic acid, cysteine and glycine. It is an excellent antioxidant in cells and protects DNA from oxidation. Its whitening effect is not weak, and the high concentration of Sophora flavescens extract compounded into the cosmetic formula can tightly lock tyrosinase and prevent the infiltration of tyrosinase, so as to achieve the purpose of inhibiting melanin formation. , in order to achieve whitening, dilute the effect of stubborn stains. Its main application is pharmaceutical products, and now it is often used in cosmetics, especially in beauty salons.


(11) Glycyrrhizine:


Light yellow powder, insoluble in water, soluble in polyol organic solvents. It is a natural whitening agent extracted from licorice, has a good anti-free radical, anti-oxidation, whitening effect; it has excellent inhibition of tyrosinase activity, thereby inhibiting the formation of melanin. Its expensive, generally used in the development of high-end whitening cosmetics, the effect is rapid and significant; its general added amount of 0.001% -1%, with glycerol 1:10 low temperature added to the product.


(12) Azelaic acid diglycine:


Colorless transparent liquid, almost tasteless, soluble in water, good chemical stability and compatibility. The inhibitory rate of tyrosinase reached more than 80%, and the whitening effect of arbutin was significant. Multi-functional additive, with whitening effect, can promote the normalization of epidermal metabolism, increase skin luster and hydration elasticity, and have no irritation to skin. Wide range of pH tolerance, generally 5-11 can be used, often used in whitening lotion, lotion, essence and other products, it is recommended to add 3% -10%.


(13) Nicotinamide (VB3):


Also known as vitamin pp, nicotinamide, a white crystalline powder, odorless, slightly acidic, stable to light and heat. Soluble in water, ethanol and glycerol, with weak moisture absorption. Has a good whitening effect, the main role of the principle is to speed up the metabolism, promote the shedding of melanin-containing keratinocytes, acting on the melanin has been produced, reduce its transfer to the superficial cells, promote the synthesis of epidermal proteins, improve skin texture. It is recommended to add 1%-5%.

In recent years, nicotinamide with nicotinic acid below 100 ppm has received much attention and selection from the market.


 


(15) Amino Acid Whitening Agent:


It is a naturally occurring amino acid derivative that is ubiquitous in mammalian cells. It is a non-cytotoxic, long-term, mild, whitening, and antifainting material with no side effects, and its whitening effect is comparable to that of kojic acid. It has a double whitening mechanism that can directly inhibit tyrosinase activity while inhibiting the transfer of melanin.


(16) Vitamin C polypeptides:


It is a naturally stable, non-color-changing vitamin C derivative with multiple short peptides. This biotechnology makes it easy to add vitamin C to cosmetics and maintain vitamin C activity over time. Creams, lotions, and essences containing Vitamin C polypeptides are applied to the skin. After the action of α-peptidase and α-glycosidase on the skin, vitamin C contained in Vitamin C polypeptides is gradually released. Vitamin C peptides are not only used for whitening, but also brighten dull skin tone, delay aging, moisturizing, and sun protection.


(17) Resveratrol:


It is a kind of natural biological polyphenols, also known as triglycinol. It is also effective in whitening and lightening. It promotes collagen production, improves skin color, improves skin health, and restores beautiful skin. Young skin. Add the latest antioxidants and whitening ingredients Resveratrol to make skin whiter longer.


(18) Glycyrrhiza flavonoids:


Has whitening effect, inhibits tyrosinase activity, has fast and efficient whitening performance; has the ability to scavenge oxygen radicals similar to SOD (superoxide dismutase); high temperature resistance, still has antioxidant at 259°C active.


(19) Ellagic acid:


It is a polyphenolic molecule widely found in many plants and fruits in nature. It is used to whiten skin, inhibit tyrosinase activity, block melanin production, and has the effect of whitening and blemish. In addition, ellagic acid can effectively protect against external damage. Blocks the activity of tyrosinase, inhibits the production of melanin, and has an antioxidant effect. That is to say, it is excellent for shutting down the action of blocking melarline pigment formation in melanin producing cells and has an antioxidative effect.


(20) Papain:


The aging stratum corneum, which acts on the skin, promotes its degradation, decomposition, and removal, promotes skin metabolism, and reduces the phenomenon of deep skin caused by sun exposure. Make skin care look good and white. The effect is skin rejuvenation first and then whitening because the papain hydrolysate retains a (hydrophobic) amino acid film on the skin to provide a moisturizing effect, leaving the skin white, smooth, watery, and elastic .


(21) Mandelic acid:


Is a kind of (lipophilic) fruit acid extracted from mandelic acid, because it inhibits the connection between the stratum corneum cells, helps to remove the aging cells accumulated in the outer layer, increases the metabolic rate between cells, and allows sebum secretion. The oil is not easy to clog, and brightens the skin, allowing the elastic fibers, collagen and hyaluronic acid in the dermis to proliferate, thereby helping the skin to improve skin problems such as acne, dark spots, wrinkles, dryness, roughness, dullness and the like.


(22) Whitening peptides:


Neptapeptide-1 contains a protective melanin-stimulating hormone that blocks all of the biosynthetic steps of melanin, improves skin color, reduces liver spots, aging spots, dark spots, freckles, dullness, and melanin deposition on the skin.


(23) Kojic acid and its derivatives:


Kojic acid is easily oxidized in contact with air and loses its whitening effect. Kojic acid has a certain irritation, but also may weaken the skin barrier, sensitive skin should be used with caution, it is not recommended for long-term use.

Kojic acid derivatives improve stability and solubility.


(24) Plant Whitening:


Wolfberry extract, mulberry bark extract, licorice extract, ginseng extract, salvia miltiorrhiza extract, barnyard grass extract barnyardgrass root extract, chrysanthemum extract, bark root extract, atractylodes root extract, white fresh root extract, polygonatum extract , Magnolia bark extract, Angelica root extract, Angelica root extract, Phyllanthus emblica (fruit) extract, Citrus extract.


(25) Plant Whitening Compound:


Whitening compounds can be diversified. As long as they are rationally compounded and ensure stability and effectiveness, they are very promising applications. Such as multi-target plant whitening element is the combination of Panax, Gastrodia, licorice, ginseng, Poria, safflower, Salvia, Dan, Astragalus, Poria, etc., there are whitening function, there are anti-allergy and acne wrinkle effect.